Sunday, December 21, 2008

Miladi Sherif

Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam, was born on the 20th April, 571 AD. Muslims all over the world celebrate the birth of the Prophet in various ways. In Kerala the practice of large scale celebration of the Prophet's birthday is of recent origin. Reading what is commonly known as the 'Maulod' which is a short biography of the Prophet written both in verse and prose in the Arabic language has been the common ritual of the day. Of late in Kerala, there has developed another practice connected with the Miladi Sherif. Night lectures are organised during the first twelve days of the month when Muslim Ulemas through their discourses enlighten the people on the various aspects of the life of the Prophet. Thus through the celebrations connected with the Miladi Sherif, the Muslim masses get an opportunity to be enlightened on the life and teachings of the Prophet.
The celebration of the Miladi Sherif in certain parts of the State, for instance Ponnani, is marked by busy activity connected with large scale feeding of the poor. Here in the Muslim Centre, one finds that the town is active during the whole night busily engaged in the charitable work of supplying food to the poor.
Recently Miladi Sherif celebration has assumed greater importance in Kerala. On this occasion colourful processions are taken out through the towns reciting Thakbir. These processions finally converge on some central place where public meetings are held These public gatherings are addressed by well-known speakers who deals with the various aspects of the Prophet's life. Such meetings are often attended largely by non-Muslims also.

Monday, December 15, 2008

Risks of Venture capital

A limited secondary market for shares – this may make them hard to sell. To partially address this issue, some VCT managers offer a Buy Back facility, normally at a discount to the net asset value. Type of company the VCT invests in – VCTs are designed to provide capital for small companies and each VCT will invest in a number of companies. There is a risk that these companies may not perform as hoped and in some circumstances may fail completely.
  • Where the 30% non-qualifying investments are invested – typically, VCTs have invested the 30% non-qualifying investments in money market securities/gilts/cash deposits etc. Some, however, invest part of this in more risky investment vehicles which may raise the overall risk profile of the fund still further.
  • Withdrawal of tax breaks – if certain criteria are not met, for example, if the investment is not held for five years or if the VCT does not invest 70% of its funds in qualifying investments, the initial tax breaks can be withdrawn.
  • Charges – the levels of charges for VCTs may be greater than for other investments, and you may also be charged performance fees.
  • Security of capital – as with any asset-backed investment, the value of a VCT depends on the performance of the underlying assets, so you may get back less than you originally invested, even taking into account the tax breaks.

Monday, December 08, 2008

Dhuna Shri Gorakh Nath Ji

Cause of Establishment:There have been nine Siddhas in the Nath cult, the foremost of them is Shri Gorakh Nath who was an accomplished yogi. This place is said to be the site of ascetism of Shri Gorakh Nath where his fire place (Dhuna) is even today present. It is also believed that Shri Gogaji met Shri Gorakh Nathji here and became his principal disciple. Gorakh Nathji gave him spiritual education and instructions. The temple of Gogaji is only 3 Kms. Away towards the west from this place.

Brief of the Diety: The idol of Bhairuji and Devi along with Lord Shiva and his family are worshiped in this temple. The Dhuna of Gorkh Nathji is also an object of worship. In this temple there is a stone image of Goddess Kalika which is made of stone and is in standing posture having the size of 3 ft. Side by side is the black stone idol of Bhairuji of the equal size. By them is the Shiva family and other Samadhis (entombments) of the yogis.
Important Architectural Characteristics:The Dhuna Guru Gorakhnath is on a mound, hence it is called Gorakh teela.Dhuna of Gorkh Nathji is also an object of worship. In this temple there is a stone image of Goddess Kalika which is made of stone and is in standing posture having the size of 3 ft. Side by side is the black stone idol of Bhairuji of the equal size. By them is the Shiva family and other Samadhis (entombments) of the yogis.

Tuesday, December 02, 2008


Amethyst is a stone that is highly valued in that it differs from common quartz because of its violet to purple color. The coloration is caused by the presence of iron and/or manganese. Amethyst has an absorption spectrum of 550-520 and its color can be restored or enhanced by the high energy of X-ray radiation. As a member of the quartz group, it has a hardness of 7, density of 2.65 and streaks white. It occurs in the trigonal crystal system and is composed of silicon dioxide. Amethyst are found in geodes of alluvial deposits. The most significant deposits are in Brazil, Madagascar, Zambia, Uruguay and many others including the United States (Arizona). It is a birthstone for February and is commonly used in jewelry. Ametrine or tristine is half amethyst (purple) and half citrine (yellow) and its deposits are located in Brazil and Bolivia.

Monday, November 24, 2008

Urban Family Welfare Schemes

This Scheme was introduced following the recommendation of the Krishnan Committee in 1983. The main focus was to provide services through setting up of Health Posts mainly in slum areas. The services provided are mainly outreach of RCH services, preventive services, First Aid and referral services including distribution of contraceptives.

Monday, November 17, 2008

Setting Goals for Weight Loss

There are lots of reasons for people who are overweight or obese to lose weight. To be healthier. To look better. To feel better. To have more energy. No matter what the reason, successful weight loss and healthy weight management depend on sensible goals and expectations. If you set sensible goals for yourself, chances are you'll be more likely to meet them and have a better chance of keeping the weight off. In fact, losing even five to 10 percent of your weight is the kind of goal that can help improve your health.

Most overweight people should lose weight gradually. For safe and healthy weight loss, try not to exceed a rate of two pounds per week. Sometimes, people with serious health problems associated with obesity may have legitimate reasons for losing weight rapidly. If so, a physician's supervision is required.

Monday, November 10, 2008


This is a forest elephant care centre. Here you can see baby elephants rescued from the forests being cared for. Elephants are also trained here. Kodanadu is 15 km from Perumbavoor which is on the Kochi-Munnar route (via Aluva).Art Complex - Madhavan Nair Foundation, Edappally - Located at Edappally, 10 kms north of Ernakulam en route to Alwaye, the complex consists of two units: the Gallery of Paintings and Sculptures, which presents over 200 original paintings by contemporary Indian artists, some of them internationally acclaimed, and works of reputed Indian sculptures. The other unit, the Centre for Visual Arts is reserved for authentic reproductions of selected world masters from Leonardo da Vinci to those of the present century. The centre also exhibits certain larger-than-life mural reproductions of ancient Indian art.

Monday, November 03, 2008


The city of Hyderabad, with its delightful blend of the ancient and the modern, presents to the onlooker an interesting skyline with modern buildings standing shoulder to shoulder with fascinating 400 year old edifices.

It boasts of some fine examples of Qutab Shahi architecture - the Jami Masjid, the Mecca Masjid, Toli Masjid, and of course, the impressive symbol of Hyderabad, the Charminar.

The Charminar is a massive arch built by Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah, in 1591 to commemorate the end of the plague in the city. The symbol of the city, the Charminar, is an impressive square monument with four minarets. The arch is illuminated daily in the evening, an unforgettable sight indeed. The monument is a magnificent square edifice of granite, built upon four grand arches facing North, South, East and West. These arches support two floors of rooms and gallery of archways. At each corner of the square structure is a minaret rising to a height of 24 meters, making the building nearly 54 meters tall. It is these four (char) minarets (minar) that give the building, its name ‘Charminar’. Each minar stands on a lotus-leaf base, a special recurrent motif in Qutub Shahi buildings.

The first floor was used as a madarasa (college) during the Qutub Shahi period. The second floor has a mosque on the western side, the dome of which is visible from the road, if one stands some distance away. A spectacular view of the city may be had from the roof of the Charminar, although, due to severe overcrowding of the minarets, only visitors with special permission from the Archaeological Survey of India, Hyderabad Circle are allowed to go to the top of the minarets. The clocks above each of the four archways were added in 1889.

Walking around the Charminar area, one is constantly surprised by vestiges of the past intermingling with the present. Towards the Southeast of the Charminar is located imposing edifice of the Nizamia Unani Hospital. About 50m to the West, the line of shops in Lad Bazaar is interrupted by an old, crumbling brown wall, which marks the entrance to the old Nizama’s Jilau Khana (parade ground). The grounds are now being used for the development of a large commercial complex. Further down, a road to the left leads to the Khilawat Complex (Chowmahalla Palace). The Lad Bazaar road terminates in a square called Mahaboob Chowk where a large 19th century clock-tower looms over a delicate white mosque of the same period.
The Charminar is about 7 km from Hyderabad railway station. It is 5 km from Hyderabad bus station. Excellent private transport is available from all parts of the twin-cities. Called the "Arc De Triumph of the East", Charminar symbolises Hyderabad. As old as the city itself, the four imposing towers of this edifice stand in the heart of the old city as a hallmark of the Qutub Shahi era.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008


The sari (saree) is the most popular outer garment of women of the Indian subcontininent. It consists of a piece of silk, cotton or synthetic cloth, five to seven yards long which is worn wrapped around the body with the end left hanging (the pallu) or used over the head as a hood. The border of a sari is usually embroidered and this is often a status symbol. Also different regions of India have specific methods of wrapping the cloth. A short tight fitting blouse called a choli is usually worn under the sari.

Monday, October 20, 2008

Problems with excessive thinness

Being too thin can occur with anorexia nervosa, other eating disorders, or loss of appetite, and is linked to menstrual irregularity and osteoporosis in women, and greater risk of early death in both women and men. Many people -- especially women -- are concerned about body weight, even when their weight is normal. Excessive concern about weight may cause or lead to such unhealthy behaviors as excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and the abuse of laxatives or other medications. These practices may only worsen the concern about weight. If you lose weight suddenly or for unknown reasons, see a physician. Unexplained weight loss may be an early clue to a health problem.

Sunday, October 12, 2008

Heavy, Sticky Oils

Oils are characteristically viscous, sticky or tarry, and brown or black. Flushing with water will not readily remove this material from surfaces, but the oil does not readily penetrate porous surfaces. The density of oils may be near that of water and they often sink. Weathering or evaporation of volatiles may produce solid or tarry oil. Toxicity is low, but wildlife can be smothered or drowned when contaminated. This class includes residual fuel oils and medium to heavy crudes.

Monday, September 29, 2008

The Caloric Balance Equation

When it comes to maintaining a healthy weight for a lifetime, the bottom line is -calories count! Weight management is all about balance—balancing the number of calories you consume with the number of calories your body uses or "burns off."

A calorie is defined as a unit of energy supplied by food. A calorie is a calorie regardless of its source. Whether you're eating carbohydrates, fats, sugars, or proteins, all of them contain calories. Caloric balance is like a scale. To remain in balance and maintain your body weight, the calories consumed (from foods) must be balanced by the calories used (in normal body functions, daily activities, and exercise).

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Siamese Fighting Fish

This fish can safely be kept in a community tank, although not with another male of their own species, and also, not usually with a female lest they start protecting (or hating) her and causing trouble all round.

In gorgeous color sheens; pure or mixed, with red, blue, green and albino predominating; but by no means being exhaustive. Growing to a sturdy 3 in., these dominating males are short-lived, thirty months or les, and ride roughshod over their terrified females who are shorter finned, paler, smaller, and no match whatsoever for their vigorous partners.

Monday, September 15, 2008


The common bean includes the edible fresh, and processed, green snap, green-shelled, and dry beans. In 1969, about 1,872,000 acres were devoted to the many types and scores of cultivars of beans, which had a farm value of more than $243 million. Fresh snap beans are primarily produced in Florida and along the eastern seaboard; processed beans, in New York, Oregon, and California, and along the eastern seaboard. Dry beans are produced in two main areas, in the West (Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico) and in north central U.S. (in and around Michigan).

Tuesday, September 09, 2008

What causes tornadoes?

Thunderstorms develop in warm, moist air in advance of eastward-moving cold fronts. These thunderstorms often produce large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes. Tornadoes in the winter and early spring are often associated with strong, frontal systems that form in the Central States and move east. Occasionally, large outbreaks of tornadoes occur with this type of weather pattern. Several states may be affected by numerous severe thunderstorms and tornadoes.
During the spring in the Central Plains, thunderstorms frequently develop along a "dryline," which separates very warm, moist air to the east from hot, dry air to the west. Tornado-producing thunderstorms may form as the dryline moves east during the afternoon hours.
Along the front range of the Rocky Mountains, in the Texas panhandle, and in the southern High Plains, thunderstorms frequently form as air near the ground flows "upslope" toward higher terrain. If other favorable conditions exist, these thunderstorms can produce tornadoes.
Tornadoes occasionally accompany tropical storms and hurricanes that move over land. Tornadoes are most common to the right and ahead of the path of the storm center as it comes onshore.

Monday, September 01, 2008

Photovoltaic (PV) Device

A solid-state electrical device that converts light directly into direct current electricity of voltage-current characteristics that are a function of the characteristics of the light source and the materials in and design of the device. Solar photovoltaic devices are made of various semiconductor materials including silicon, cadmium sulfide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, and in single crystalline, multicrystalline, or amorphous forms.

Monday, August 25, 2008


The availability of coal in abundance makes Jharkhand an ideal state for setting up thermal power plants. The Government of Jharkhand has taken several initiatives for the development of this industry. It has signed Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of India as a token of its commitment to the reforms in the power sector. Rural electrification has been accorded top priority. The work on renovation and modernization of existing power generating stations has already commenced. The State is attracting private investment in the industry for its further growth.

Monday, August 18, 2008

Sociology of education

The sociology of education is the learning of how social institutions and services have an effect on educational processes and outcomes, and vice versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcome the handicaps, achieve greater equality and acquire wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). Learners may be provoked by aspirations for progress and betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can expand according to their unique needs and potentialities. The principle of education can be to build up every individual to their full potential. The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to the sociological model used.

Monday, August 11, 2008


It is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground. The subsoil may include substances such as clay and has only been partly broken down by air, sunlight, water etc., to create true soil. Below the subsoil is the substratum, which can be residual bedrock, sediments, or Aeolian deposits, largely unchanged by soil-forming factors active in the subsoil? It contains partially weathered particles.

Tuesday, August 05, 2008

Cost and Freight (C&F, CFR, CNF)

Cost and freight charges is payable by the importer. The exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to the particular location. Example, C&F Los Angeles (the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles). A lot of shipping carriers (such as UPS, DHL, and FEDE) offer guarantees on their delivery times. These are recognized as GSR guarantees or "guaranteed service refunds". This means that if the parcels are not delivered on time, the customer is allowed to a refund on the shipping cost. UPS, DHL and FEDEX make it very hard however for customers to determine which parcels are late and request their refunds, and thereby permit approximately 90% of potential refunds to go unclaimed. That amounts to over $1 billion USD per year in unclaimed refunds.

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

Process of oil painting

The process of oil painting varies from artist to artist, but frequently includes certain steps. First, the artist prepares the surface. Although surfaces like linoleum, panel, paper, slate, pressed wood, and cardboard have been used, the most well-liked surface since the 16th century has been canvas, even though many artists used panel through the 17th century and beyond. Before that it was panel, which is more luxurious, heavier, less easy to transport, and prone to warp or split in poor conditions. For fine detail, however, the absolute solidity of a wooden panel gives an advantage.

The artist might sketch an outline of their subject prior to apply pigment to the surface. "Pigment" may be any number of natural substances with color, such as sulphur for yellow or cobalt for blue. The pigment is varied with oil, usually linseed oil but other oils may be used as well. The various oils dry in a different way creating assorted effects.

Traditionally, an artist assorted his or her own paints for each project. Handling and mixing the raw pigments and mediums was prohibitive to transportation. This changed in the late 1800s, when oil paint in tubes became extensively available. Artists could mix colors rapidly and easily without having to grind their own pigments. Also, the portability of tube paints allowed for plein air, or outdoor painting.

Monday, July 21, 2008


It is a form of message that typically attempts to influence the potential customers to buy or to consume more particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are planned to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "brand image" and "brand loyalty". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes implant their persuasive message with truthful information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, cinema, radio, magazines, internet, newspapers, video games, and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising organization on behalf of a company or other organization.

Monday, July 14, 2008

Seven Blunders of the World

The Seven Blunders of the World is a list that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi gave to his grandson Arun Gandhi, written on a piece of paper, on their final day together, not too long before his assassination. The seven blunders are:
Prosperity without work
Pleasure without sense of right and wrong
Knowledge without nature
Commerce without principles
Science without humankind
Worship without sacrifice
Politics without principle
This list grew from Gandhi's search for the ancestry of violence. He called these acts of inactive violence. Preventing these is the best way to prevent oneself or one's society from reaching a point of violence.

Monday, July 07, 2008


Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The goal of baseball is to score runs by striking a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four markers called bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot square, or diamond. Players on one team (the batting team) take turns hitting while the other team (the fielding team) try to stop them from scoring runs by receiving hitters out in any number of ways. A player on the batting team can discontinue at any of the bases and hope to score on a teammate's hit. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team gets three outs. One turn at bat for each team constitutes an inning; nine innings make up a professional game. The team by way of getting more runs at the end of the game wins.

Tuesday, July 01, 2008

Electronic Filing System

The Electronic Filing System (or EFS) is the Singapore Judiciary's electronic platform for filing and service of papers within the proceedings process. In addition, it provides to register in the Supreme Court and the Subordinate Courts with an electronic registry and workflow scheme; and an electronic case file. Recent enhancement has added a module which facilitates the conduct of inquiry using documents that have been electronically filed.

The EFS provides the legal profession with a elementary online case file from which documents can be electronically filed with the courts or served on the other parties in a case. The EFS is also the source for electronic cause book searches that are provided through the Litigation module of LawNet.

Thursday, June 19, 2008

Professional Development

The recommendations

Teachers should be fully aware of the school's Internet access arrangements so that they know whether access to the web and to newsgroups is filtered or blocked at all.
Senior management should ensure that appropriate time and resources for professional development are made available so that staff can keep themselves up to date with Internet issues and use.
All staff should be able to engage in a professional development programme which covers at least the following basic objectives:
o using and understanding the Internet;
o appreciating the strengths and weaknesses of the Internet;
o understanding the potential role of the Internet across the curriculum;
o recognizing how Internet use and Personal Safety Programmes can reinforce each other;
o developing Internet-related policies with ethically-sound foundations; and,
o responding to queries from other professionals and from the wider community regarding the Internet arrangements and policies within their own establishment, and the underlying rationale.

· Schools are likely to benefit from having their own small group, which keeps up to date with Internet and Child Safety issues and shares new experience with colleagues.

Wednesday, June 11, 2008

Art Deco

Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939, affecting the decorative arts such as architecture, core design, and industrial design, as well as the visual arts such as fashion, painting, the graphic arts, and film. This movement was, in a intelligence, an amalgam of many different styles and movements of the early 20th century, including Neoclassical, Constructivism, Cubism, Modernism, Bauhaus, Art Nouveau, and Futurism. Its popularity peaked in Europe during the Roaring Twenties and continued strongly in the United States through the 1930s. Although many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was simply decorative. At the time, this style was seen as graceful, functional, and modern.

Monday, June 02, 2008

Tata Nano

The Tata Nano is a planned city car debuted by India's Tata Motors at the 9th annual Auto Expo on January 10, 2008 at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi, India.

Called the people’s car in Tata's promotional material, it was projected to be the smallest amount luxurious production car in the world. The standard version of the Nano is projected to sell for Rs.100,000 (approximately US $2500, GBP 1277, or € 1700), not including fees or delivery.

Newsweek identify the Nano as a part of a "new breed of 21st-century cars" that embodies "a contrarian philosophy of smaller, lighter, and cheaper" and portends a new era in inexpensive personal transportation - and potentially, "global gridlock". The Wall Street Journal confirms a global trend toward small cars, led by the Nano.

The prefix "Nano" derives from the Greek root 'nanos', meaning dwarf - as with nanometer. "Nano" also means "small" in Gujarati, the native verbal communication of the Tata family, founders of the Tata Group.

Monday, May 26, 2008

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon is also known as the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq, formerly Babylon are precise one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. They were built by Nebuchadnezzar II approximately 600 BC. He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his wife, Amytis of Media, who longed for the trees and aromatic plants of her homeland.The gardens were damaged by several earthquakes after the 2nd century BCE.

The lush Hanging Gardens are broadly documented by Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. Through the ages, the location may have been confused with gardens that exist at Nineveh, since tablets from there clearly show gardens. Writings on these tablets explain the possible use of something similar to an Archimedes' screw as a process of raising the water to the necessary height.

Sunday, May 18, 2008

Formal wear

Formal wear or formal dress is an ordinary fashion term used to explain clothing apt for formal procedures, with weddings, debutante cotillions, etc. Western formal dress has had a ubiquitous influence on styles in different countries. It is almost forever the normal used in countries where there is no formal edition of the national costume. Foreign dignitaries and honored visitors in Western countries frequently take on Western evening dress on formal and state occasions, even though it is not unusual for distinguished persons to wear the formal versions of their common dress if such exists; the sari and the dashiki are easily-recognizable for examples.

Unlike for the majority part of the fashion world, the styles of formal dress take their names from men's wear rather than female dress. Traditional 'rules' oversee men's formal dress; these are definitely observed at socially traditional events for example royal weddings, and give as starting points for the creative formal wear seen at high school proms, formal dances and in free time industry awards shows.

Sunday, May 11, 2008

Credit rating

A credit rating assesses the credit worthiness of an individual, corporation, or even a country. Credit ratings are considered from financial history and current assets and liabilities. Typically, a credit rating tells a lender or investor the probability of the subject being capable to pay back a loan. However, in recent years, credit ratings have also been used to adjust insurance premiums, determine employment eligibility, and establish the amount of a utility or leasing deposit.

A poor credit rating indicates a high risk of non-payment on a loan, and thus leads to high interest rates or the denial of a loan by the creditor.

Sunday, May 04, 2008

Yield curve

In finance, the yield curve is the relation between the interest rate and cost of borrowing and the time to maturity of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency. For example, the current U.S. dollar interest rates paid on U.S. Treasury securities for various maturities are closely watched by many traders, and are normally plotted on a graph such as the one on the right which is informally called "the yield curve." More formal mathematical descriptions of this relation are often called the term arrangement of interest rates.

The yield of a debt instrument is the annualized percentage increase in the worth of the investment. For instance, a bank account that pays an interest rate of 4% per year has a 4% yield. In general the percentage per year that can be earned is dependent on the length of time that the money is invested. For example, a bank may offer a "savings rate" higher than the normal checking account rate if the customer is prepared to leave money unharmed for five years. Investing for a period of time t gives a yield Y (t).

This function Y is called the yield curve, and it is often, but not always, an increasing function of t. Yield curves are used by fixed income analysts, who analyze bonds and connected securities, to understand conditions in financial markets and to seek trading opportunities. Economists make use of curves to understand economic conditions.

Monday, April 28, 2008


Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a harmonized fashion to search out an exacting objective. In numerous cases the aim is weight loss, however some athletes look forward to gain weight and diets can as well be used to keep a stable body weight.

There are many kinds of diets:

The Weight-loss diets control the intake of exacting foods, or food in most cases, to lessen body weight. What works to drop off body weight for one person will not essentially work for another, because of the metabolic differences and lifestyle factors. In addition, for a variety of reasons, the greater part of the people discovers that it is very difficult to maintain major weight loss over time. There is some notion that losing weight promptly can actually make it harder to maintain the loss over time.

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Exchange rate

In finance, the exchange rates that are different names are also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate between two currencies specify how much one currency is value in terms of the other. For example an exchange rate of 102 Japanese yen (JPY, ¥) to the United States dollar (USD, $) means that JPY 102 is worth the same as USD 1. The foreign exchange market is one of the largest markets in the world. By some estimate, about 2 trillion USD worth of currency changes hands every day.
The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange rate. The forward exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is quoted and traded today but for delivery and payment on a exact future date.

Sunday, April 06, 2008

Divergence theorem in maths

In vector calculus, the divergence theorem, as well known as Gauss' theorem, Ostrogradsky's theorem, or Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem is an answer that relates the flow (that is, flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface.

More accurately, the divergence theorem states that the outward flux of a vector field through a surface is equal to the triple integral of the divergence on the region in the surface. Intuitively, it states that the sum of every source minus the sum of all sinks gives the net flow out of a region.
The divergence theorem is the main result for the mathematics of physics, particularly in electrostatics and fluid dynamics.

Sunday, March 30, 2008

Primary storage

Primary storage, presently known as memory, is the only one directly reachable to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads commands stored there and executes them. Any data actively operate on is also stored there in uniform manner.

Historically, early computers used delay lines, Williams’s tubes, or revolving magnetic drums as primary storage. By 1954, those unreliable methods were frequently replaced by magnetic core memory, which was still rather cumbersome. Undoubtedly, a revolution was started with the invention of a transistor that soon enables then-unbelievable neatness of electronic memory via solid-state silicon chip technology.

This led to a modern random access memory (RAM). It is small-sized, light, but quite expensive at the same time. (The particular types of RAM used for primary storage are also volatile, i.e. loses the information when not powered).

Sunday, March 23, 2008


The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange or white, or pink in color, with a crunchy texture when fresh. The suitable for eating part of a carrot is a taproot. It is a cultivated form of the wild carrot Daucus carota, national to Europe and southwestern Asia. It has been bred for its very much inflamed and more palatable, less woody-textured edible taproot, but is still the similar species.

It is a biennial plant which grows a rosette of leaves in the spring and summer, while building up the fat taproot, which stores big amounts of sugars for the plant to flower in the second year. The peak stem grows to about 1 m tall, with an umbel of white flowers.

Carrots can be eaten raw, whole, chopped, grate, or added to salads for color or texture. They are also often chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as fine baby foods and choose pet foods. A well recognized dish is carrots julienne. Grated carrots are used in carrot cakes, as healthy as carrot puddings, an old English dish thought to have originated in the early 1800s.

Sunday, March 16, 2008


Chocolate comprises a number of raw and process foods that are formed from the seed of the tropical cacao tree. Native to lowland tropical South America, cacao has been sophisticated for three millennia in Central America and Mexico, with its earliest recognized use about 1100 BC. All of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, as well as the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have a controlling bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After being roasted and ground, the ensuing products are known as chocolate or cocoa.

Much of the chocolate inspired today is made into bars that combine with cocoa solids, fats like cocoa butter, and sugar. Chocolate has twist into one of the most popular flavors in the world. A chocolate lover is also called as "chocoholics." Gifts of frustrated wrapped chocolate molded into different shapes has become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and further holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on Valentine's Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, to make chocolate milk and cocoa.

Sunday, March 09, 2008

Corporate bond

A corporate bond is a bond issued by a company; the term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, usually with a maturity date falling at least a year after their issue date. The term "commercial paper" is sometimes shabby for instruments with a shorter maturity.

Sometimes, the term "corporate bonds" is used to include all bonds separately from those issued by governments in their own currency. Strictly speaking, however, it only applies to those issued by corporations.

Monday, March 03, 2008


Mercury (pronounced /'m?kj??ri/) is the deepest and smallest planet in the solar system, orbiting the Sun once every 88 days. Mercury is bright when viewed from Earth, range from -2.0 to 5.5 in apparent magnitude, but is not easily seen as its greatest angular separation from the Sun (greatest elongation) is only 28.3°: It can only be seen in morning and evening twilight. Comparatively little is known about it; the first of two spacecraft to move toward Mercury was Mariner 10 from 1974 to 1975, which mapped only about 45% of the planet’s surface. The second was the MESSENGER spacecraft, which mapped another 30% of the planet throughout its flyby of January 14, 2008. MESSENGER will make two more passes by Mercury, follow by orbital insertion in 2011, and will survey and map the whole planet.

Wednesday, February 27, 2008

Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are photovoltaic materials that are used to replace conventional building materials in parts of the building envelope such as the roof, skylights, or facades. They are increasingly being incorporated into the construction of new buildings as a principal or ancillary source of electrical power, although existing buildings may be retrofitted with BIPV modules as well. The advantage of integrated photovoltaics over more common non-integrated systems is that the initial cost can be offset by reducing the amount spent on building materials and labor that would normally be used to construct the part of the building that the BIPV modules replace.

Friday, February 22, 2008

Seismic Intelligence

(US Army Field Manual 2-0) defines seismic intelligence as "The passive collection and measurement of seismic waves or vibrations in the earth surface." In the context of verification, seismic intelligence makes use of the science of seismology to locate and characterize nuclear testing, especially underground testing. Seismic sensors also can characterize large conventional explosions that are used in testing the high-explosive components of nuclear weapons.

Sunday, February 17, 2008

PID control

Apart from sluggish performance to avoid oscillations, another problem with proportional-only control is that power application is always in direct proportion to the error. In the example above we assumed that the set temperature could be maintained with 50% power. What happens if the furnace is required in a different application where a higher set temperature will require 80% power to maintain it? If the gain was finally set to a 50° PB, then 80% power will not be applied unless the furnace is 15° below setpoint, so for this other application the operators will have to remember always to set the setpoint temperature 15° higher than actually needed. This 15° figure is not completely constant either: it will depend on the surrounding ambient temperature, as well as other -factors that affect heat loss from or absorption within the furnace.

PID control

Apart from sluggish performance to avoid oscillations, another problem with proportional-only control is that power application is always in direct proportion to the error. In the example above we assumed that the set temperature could be maintained with 50% power. What happens if the furnace is required in a different application where a higher set temperature will require 80% power to maintain it? If the gain was finally set to a 50° PB, then 80% power will not be applied unless the furnace is 15° below setpoint, so for this other application the operators will have to remember always to set the setpoint temperature 15° higher than actually needed. This 15° figure is not completely constant either: it will depend on the surrounding ambient temperature, as well as other -factors that affect heat loss from or absorption within the furnace.

Friday, February 08, 2008

Sociology and Sociocybernetics

Systems theory has also been developed within sociology. An important figure in the sociological systems perspective as developed from GST is Walter Buckley (who from Bertalanffy's theory). Niklas Luhmann is also predominant in the literatures for sociology and systems theory. Miller's living systems theory was particularly influential in sociology from the time of the early systems movement.

Models for equilibrium in systems analysis that contrasted classical views from Talcott Parsons and George Homas were influential in integrating concepts with the general movement. With the renewed interest in systems theory on the rise since the 1990s, Bailey (1994) notes the concept of systems in sociology dates back to Auguste Comte in the 19th century, Herbert Spencer and Vilfredo Pareto, and that sociology was readying into its centennial as the new systems theory was emerging following the World Wars.

Sunday, January 27, 2008


Autonomism is a term applied to a variety of social movements around the world, which the ability to organize in autonomous and horizontal networks, as opposed to hierarchical structures such as unions or parties. Autonomist Marxists, including Harry Cleaver, broaden the definition of the working-class to include salaried and unpaid labor, such as skilled professions and housework; it focuses on the working class in advanced capitalist states as the primary force of change in the construct of capital. Modern autonomist theorists such as Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt argue that network power constructs are the most effective methods of organization against the neoliberal regime of accumulation, and predict a massive shift in the dynamics of capital into a 21st Century Empire.

Thursday, January 17, 2008

DNA nanotechnology

DNA nanotechnology uses the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create self-assembing branched DNA complexes with useful properties. DNA is thus used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of biological information. This has led to the creation of two-dimensional periodic lattices (both tile-based as well as using the "DNA origami" method) as well as three-dimensional structures in the shapes of polyhedra. Nanomechanical devices and algorithmic self-assembly have also been demonstrated, and these DNA structures have been used to template the arrangement of other molecules such as gold nanoparticles and streptavidin proteins.

Thursday, January 10, 2008

Personality psychology

Personality psychology studies enduring psychological patterns of behavior, thought and emotion, commonly called an individual's personality. Theories of personality vary between different psychological schools. Trait theories attempts to break personality down into a number of traits, by use of factor analysis. The number of traits have varied between theories. One of the first, and smallest, models was that of Hans Eysenck, which had three dimensions: extroversion—introversion, neuroticism—emotional stability, and psychoticism. Raymond Cattell proposed a theory of 16 personality factors. The theory that has most empirical evidence behind it today may be the "Big Five" theory, proposed by Lewis Goldberg, and others.

A different, but well known, approach to personality is that of Sigmund Freud, whose structural theory of personality divided personality into the ego, superego, and id. Freud's theory of personality has been criticized by many, including many mainstream psychologists.

Friday, January 04, 2008


Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. It was developed by Auguste Comte (widely regarded as the first sociologist) in the middle of the 19th century. In the early 20th century, logical positivism-a stricter and more logical version of Comte's basic thesis-sprang up in Vienna and grew to become one of the dominant movements in American and British philosophy. The positivist view is sometimes referred to as a scientist ideology, and is often shared by technocrats who believe in the necessity of progress through scientific progress, and by naturalism, who argue that any method for gaining knowledge should be limited to natural, physical, and material approaches. As an approach to the philosophy of science deriving from Enlightenment thinkers like Pierre-Simon Laplace (and many others), positivism was first systematically theorized by Comte, who saw the scientific method as replacing metaphysics in the history of thought, and who observed the circular dependence of theory and observation in science.